In the middle ages, the Empirics were the largest group of health care providers in Europe. Empirics, who were called so by the rather prejudiced university-trained doctors of the time, were the healers who relied on their experience in providing cures (what worked and what didn't seem to), rather than classical medical training. They were more commonly called healers, wise men, or wise women who often relied heavily on traditional home remedies, prayers, and incantations.
There's very little evidence as to how these healers were trained (most were illiterate), but it is generally assumed they either trained under someone medically trained or learned from things they picked up along the way.
There are very few references to Empirics, except perhaps a smattering of court records where either their skills were not up to par or they were so up to par that jealous medical doctors would fine or jail them for not having a license to practice. To me, this sounds similar to modern day practices (the divide between the medical and holistic communities, as well as the inability for any health practitioner to say they can 'cure' anything) and is probably what brought on witch hunts, in my opinion.
Aside from the Empirics, there were other practitioners in the middle ages, such as monks and nuns who studied in libraries and tended to patients, daughters of physicians or surgeons who were trained by a parent (although daughters were banned from medical practice until the 14th century) and were only able to offer services privately, never publicly, and noble women who were basically in the same category as the daughters, but who were expected to take care of their families, close relatives and friends. Then, there were also the apothecaries.
While Empirics gathered herbs for treatments, apothecaries were those who provided medical substances for doctors, such as pearls, gold, spices, and sugar. Why sugar? Sugar was used in making syrups and sugar pills for the wealthy. The apothecary didn't just buy and sell, he created pastes, salves, tonics, and pills as per the doctor's instructions. Some of these were available over the counter, while others only by prescription. Most apothecaries learned their trade through an apprenticeship and were often subject to periodic inspection, as some were found to be diagnosing and remedying ailments entirely on their own, which, of course, was not allowed. This would be like someone in today's world working for a pharmacy and selling drugs out of the back door.
Diagnostic and remedy techniques were often related to blood and urine according to the smell, color, or even taste. Diet was an extremely important part of medicine in the middle-ages and foods were prescribed according to the "4 humours". Often, bleeding and cautery were used. Wine was used to clean wounds and then bandages applied. Herbs that were in supply were used, as well as some more bizarre substances like bird or pig ‘poop’. Surgery was not used, unless there was no other course, whether there was anesthetic or not and, more often than not, these were performed by barbers and executioners who knew something of anatomy. Mental illness was considered caused by a physical condition or by supernatural forces and were 'cured' through, again, the 4 humors. other remedies already described in this blog, or by exorcism.
Midwives (nurses), which were to work only under the supervision of a physician. They were often given the responsibility of handling gynecological and obstetric care of other women and to perform cesarean births, as the physician found this kind of work distasteful. As a result, many poorer women had only the help of the midwives (nurses), while the nobler patients had, both, doctor and nurse.
And, last, but not least, monks and nuns carried out the responsibility of doctoring and nursing in monasteries.
If you are interested, I offer a glimpse at what it was like to be a medieval practitioner on Medieval Health Practices Pinterest board.
Artwork: Isabella and the Pot of Basil by William Holman Hunt with a sepia overlay.
Mari J. Dionne ~ CHP, CLC
"The older I get the more sure I am that one's thoughts create one's reality. They say home is where the heart is but I have found it is the mind that that determines where one's heart resides."
Forgotten English Health Terms
Fish-Whole - as sound as a fish or healthy
Blind Cupid - the backside
Accoucheur - a male mid-wife
Kingsevil - a disease or swelling of the cervical lymph nodes
Valitudinary - subject to sickness; crazy
Chime-Child -a child born on Sunday who was immune to witchcraft, could see ghosts, and was a natural healer
Periblepsis - a delirious stare of the eyes
Wormland - churchyard
Green-Sickness - a disease incident to virgins; sickly paleness, with green tint of complexion
Tissek or Tissicky Cough - a tickling faint cough
Multiplying Medicine - an elixer of the alchemists, used in making and multiplying gold
Peat-Reek-Whisky - highland whiskey, distilled over peat fires
Belly-Brussen - a distended stomach or having a protuberant stomach
Oint - to smear with an unctuous substance (usually having to do with painting or disguising something)
Farbed-Up - confused
Nyctobasis - somnambulism; to walk in one's sleep
Roozles - wretchedness of mind and body
Coolth - coolness (opposite of warmth)
Pharmacopolist - an apothecary
Laver - to wash (before dinner)
Gothicism - to be rude or rudeness
Desuetude - lack of use
Splay the Bream - to cut up that fish
Doctor of Skill - a physician
Dendranthoplology - the theory that man sprang from trees
Fash - to care, to trouble one's self, anxiety
Satisfy Colon - to satisfy one's hunger
Neurasthenia - debility or impairment of the nerves
Trollibags - the intestines
Cothish - faint, sickly, ailing
Fogo - a disagreeable stink, stench, or smell
With Squirrel - pregnant
Pottinger - a cook, apothecary, druggist (Scotland)
Pomster - a quack doctor; to treat illness without knowledge or skill
Bleflummery - vain imaginings
Venefice - a practice of poisoning
Weaponsalve - a salve that was supposed to cure the wound by applying it to the weapon that caused it
Overset - to recover from mental shock
Fordolked - wounded
Wamblecropped - humiliated
Peffle - in a nervous state
Measondue - a hospital or poor house
Dead-Nip - a blue mark on the body not caused by an injury or any known cause...sometimes called a witch's nip
Sadly On - expressing that a person is ill or in a bad way
Whirligigs or Tallywags - testicles
Betwattled - to be surprised, confounded, out of one’s senses
Bone Box - the mouth
Dicked in the Nob - silly, crazed
Head Rails - teeth
Hickey - tipsy, hiccupping
Knowledge box - a term for the head
Sugar stick - the virile member
Pimpish - Dainty in the matter of food (taking in small quantities)
Witchify - to bewitch
Naufrage - shipwreck
Artwork & Photography Credits
Side Bar: Pen & Ink, Old Door, and Star (iStock.com ~ All rights reserved.) with sepia overlays.